Geoekologiya, 2022, Vol. 3, P. 16-23


I. M. Kravchenko1,*, E. A. Pikulik1, V. M. Makeev1, A. S. Gousseltsev2,**, E. A. Makeeva1

1Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ulanskii per., 13, str. 2, Moscow, 101000, Russia

2Scientific and Engineering Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Safety,
M. Krasnoselskaya ul., 2/8, str. 5, Moscow, 107140 Russia.

*E-mail: kravchenkoilyamax@yandex.ru
**E-mail: gouseltsev@secnrs.ru


The study of buried landforms during engineering-geological surveys is considered. The necessity of tracing and comprehensive studying Quaternary channels, troughs, and other cuttings, which may inherit lineament zones is shown by the example of Balakovo NPP site, which belongs to especially hazardous and complicated engineering objects. These zones show high water permeability and weak physico-mechanical properties of soils. Structural geomorphological, geological, and hydrogeological conditions at the Balakovo NPP site were investigated. Most of data were obtained from borehole cores. Ten lineament zones were identified, which follow paleocuttings in the buried relief. On the Earth's surface, they are marked by small depressions, which are interpreted as lineaments on satellite images. The long-term geodetic observations over deformations of ground bases of NPP buildings revealed uneven deformations and tilts at the compartment units 1-4 of the reactor. Tilting direction more or less fits the location of paleocuttings filled with deposits of different composition and structure. The groundwater and confined aquifers are redistributed there, and suffosion may also develop.  Thus, to predict the behavior of ground bases of buildings and engineering structures, it is necessary to consider buried landforms related to the specific structure of the Quaternary alluvial soils and local variability of their physical and mechanical properties.

Keywords: neotectonics, buried relief, paleocuttings,  facies variability, lineament zones, zones of increased permeability, ground base, technical monitoring, deformations of nuclear power plant buildings


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